|M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank|
|Average Unit Cost||
Cadillac Gage/Chrysler Defense
|Country of Origin||
Desert Strike II
32.2 Feet (All Models)
11.98 Feet (All Models)
9.45 Feet (All Models)
25 Meters (All Models)
0.43 Meters (All Models)
Multiple Disc (All Models)
Torsion Bar (All Models)
|Road Wheel Type||
|Operating Temperature Range||
|Armor And Active Defense|
|Fire Control And Other Systems|
Main Battle Tank
- 1 History
- 2 Replacement
- 3 Design
- 3.1 XM1 Abrams
- 3.2 M1 Abrams
- 3.3 M1-IP(Improved Production) Abrams
- 3.4 M1A1/HA(Heavy Armor) Abrams
- 3.5 M1A2 Abrams
- 3.6 M1A3 Abrams
- 3.7 M1A4 Abrams
- 3.8 140mm and XM91 Autoloader(C.1989)
- 3.9 120mm Compact Automatic Magazine
- 3.10 Project Catalina
- 3.11 Camouflage
- 3.12 Concealment
- 3.13 Active Defense
- 3.14 Armor
- 4 Dedicated Variants
- 5 Upgrades
- 5.1 AIM (Abrams Integrated Management)
- 5.2 TUSK (Tank Urban Survival Kit)
- 5.3 SEP (Systems Enhancement Package)
- 5.4 SA (Situational Awareness)
- 5.5 CAM (Compact Automatic Magazine)
- 5.6 AMAP (Abrams Modular Armor Package)
- 5.7 AAAP (Abrams Advanced Armor Package)
- 5.8 ASAP (Abrams Special Armor Package)
- 5.9 AAP (Abrams Awareness Package)
- 5.10 FEP (Firepower Enhancement Package)
- 5.11 BCP (Battle Command Package)
- 5.12 UCP/PKO (Urban Combat Package/Peace Keeping Operation)
- 6 Armament
- 7 Ammunition
- 8 Mobility
- 9 Organization
- 10 Variants and Upgrades
- 11 Operators
- 12 Known Abrams Tanks
- 13 Quotes
- 14 Gallery
For many years the Tarakian Military relied on post World War 2 Era Tanks, the most prolific tank in service with the Tarakian Army and Marine Corps was the M48A3 Patton MBT, it was armed with the potent M48 90mm High Velocity Maingun and could achieve a kill in just as 1 or 2 rounds due to the advancement in Tank Shell technology, in 1954 the Tarakian Army began a trial to find a replacement for the M48A5 by this time the Tarakian Army had adopted the M68 105mm Rifled Maingun for the Patton but it proved uncapable for Tarakian duties, the resulting Tank that came out of the program was the U.S. M103(Tank, Full Tracked, 120mm, M103) Heavy Tank, the M103 seemed pleasing with its T34E1 120mm Rifled Main Gun, however it had two drawbacks, it's weight and it's Engine could only go for 80 Miles before needing to be refueled, the Tarakian Army again put the M48A5 back into service and put the M103 Heavy Tank in Storage, it wasn't until the late 50's when the Tarakian Army began to look into a newer tank, rumors had been arousing of a new Soviet tank able to counter Western Armor, Tarakia had requested a single prototype XM60 from General Dynamics Land Systems, it proved well and went into production for the Tarakian Army, carrying the designation M60T (Tropicalized) and designed to operate in the Tarakian Deserts with Ease, it was soon realized that the M60 would need an upgrade to continue it's service, over 70 M60T's were retrofitted to M60A1 Standard, the retrofit introduced a new Turret design, improved suspension and Armor protection giving the M60T's a nice advantage on the Field, in the mid 60's the Tarakian Army retrofitted it's fleet of M60A1's to the M60A1 RISE Passive Standard. The final M60 to enter service with the Tarakian Army was in 1972, the M60A3, the M60A3 was a completely new tank, although it still looked like it's counterparts it had been fitted with a Stabilized Main Gun; Thermal Sleeve Introduced alongside the barrel; ballistics computer; air filtration system; improved searchlight; improved engine; improved laser rangefinder; and External grenade smoke dischargers, as part of a upgrade to extend the life of the M60A3 by just a few years, select units were fitted with the TTS (Tank Thermal Sight) AN/VSG-2 Thermal Sight giving certain units the designation M60A3TTS. As the M60A3 served up into the late 70's increasing reports of Soviet Tanks being developed had sparked the thought "Is the M60A3 a match for these increasing Soviet Developments?" Sure the M60A3 had knocked out the older T-54/55 and T-62 Series Tanks, but could it knock out these increasing soviet developments? The Tarakian Army had received a captured T-72U and began to study the tank down to it's bolts, it was a modern design mounting a 125mm Smoothbore Main Gun with a auto loader, the ammunition was a two piece design, and the auto loader had one drawback, it had to relay the main gun just so the two piece SABOT or HEAT round could be shoved into the breach, Test shots were taking at some decommissioned M60A3 Patton Main Battle Tanks, the result was the catastrophic the 125mm round managed to penetrate the armor package of the M60A3, it shocked many in the Tarakian Military, including the Brass and the CEO's of the Defense Contractors. The Tarakian Army also received a captured Soviet T-80, one that had not been exported' it was studied and determined to be more advanced than the previous T series tanks.
In early 1978 the Tarakian Army issued a request for a Modern Main Battle Tank to combat the increasing threat of Soviet Armor Advancement, in 1979 General Dynamics Tarakia, had developed a prototype tank based on the requirements made by the Tarakian Army, and given the designation XM1-90, the XM1 Mounted the M3 90mm High Velocity Main gun developed by General Dynamics Armament Systems, The 90mm had proved effective before but it was far ahead it's retirement date, the 90mm was dropped from the Prototype and replaced by a General Dynamics Armament Systems M68A1 105mm L/44 Rifled Main gun, the same as used on the M60A3 Patton, with a fewer minor tweaks and improvements, the XM1-105 was approved for production by the Tarakian Army and was giving the Designation M1 Abrams, Named after the U.S. Army General Creighton Abrams, the M1 Abrams was officially adopted in 1981 and was armed with the Rheinmetall built M68A2 105mm L/52 Smoothbore Main Gun, in early 1983 the Tarakian Army issued a request for improved storage capabilities of the M1 and various upgrades to the system, the resulting Upgrade introduced the M1-IP(Improved Production) Model, the Improved Production model added rear storage, Reinforced Suspension, New Armor Package and deleted the Sprocket Retainer Ring. It wasn't until the late 80's early 90's when the M1A1 Abrams was introduced.
the M1A1 was a Major upgrade to the previous Abrams Tanks, the M1A1 introduced the Rheinmetall M256 120mm L/44 Smoothbore Main gun, Depleted Uranium Armor Mesh, Pressurized NBC System and Improved Storage, the M1A1 was deployed in Operation Desert Endeavor in 1990, an Operation to Deter Sal-Kari Forces away from the Tarakian Border, during the ensuing Tank Battles, the M1A1 proved far superior to Sal-Kari Armor, with only 3 Abrams Tanks lost during the Operation, two of them were lost to enemy fire while the third Abrams was lost to Friendly Fire, after the Operation the Abrams returned to the drawing board for another major upgrade, but before this upgrade was applied or even drafted, Every M1A1 Abrams in the Tarakian Army were brought up to Digital Standard, giving the M1A1 Abrams the Designation M1A1-D(Digital), this was the basis for the next model in the Abrams line, the M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank was introduced in 2001 and was a vast improvement, the M1A2 Abrams introduced the Commanders Independent Thermal Viewer, Land Navigation System and a New Armor Package, the M1A2 also mounted the newer M256A1 120mm L/55 Smoothbore Main Gun giving the A2 a considerable advantage on the field of the Battle. The M1A2 became the mainstay of the Tarakian Army for 9 Years before it's next upgrade, refurbished M1A1 Abrams were sent to the Marine Corps to replace their Existing inventory of M60 Patton tanks, the Resulting upgrade for the Marine Corps Abrams resulted in the M1A1-AIM(Abrams Integrated Management), the AIM Package brought Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams up to Army M1A2 Standard. In 2010 the M1A3 Abrams was introduced in the Tarakian Army.
the M1A3 was armed with the Rheinmetall M256A2 120mm L/66 Smoothbore Main gun and the Honeywell ATG-1700C Multifuel Turbine Engine and also a new Armor Package was applied, the 1700C offered considerable more Horsepower and operational range, the M1A3 had one problem the L/66 120mm Smoothbore proved to be too long and therefore only 50 M1A3's were produced with the L66 Main gun, In mid 2010 the M1A3 was rearmed with the Rheinmetall M256A2 120mm L/55 Smoothbore Main gun, The M1A3 was also 80% more combat effective due to it's upgrades. The M1A3 served for 21 Years and received upgrades to extend it's life, In 2030 the M1A4 Abrams prototype was introduced and had technology not seen on previous Abrams Tanks, the M1A4 featured the SPECTRE System, A full Digital Upgrade to the System' the SPECTRE system included Enhanced Digital Gun Sights, Enhanced FLIR(Forward Looking Infrared), Brigade Combat Network System, Digital Gunner Station. The Digital Gunner Station was revolutionary, because it added the Fire Solution Computer' the FSC introduced the Abrams Advanced Fire Control Suite, the AFCS is able to feed the gunner 1,000 Solutions every few seconds for the Selected Munition, the Data is also in real time and therefore the Advanced Fire Control Suite must continue to feed Data to the gunner' the Advanced Fire Control Suite can also be operated in Passive mode where Data is manually selected for the munition and then passed onto the Commander for Approval. the SPECTRE System improved the Commanders Master "Blaster" Arm to override gunner control of the Main gun if hesitant to fire, This also allows the Commander to fully Traverse the Turret and Lay the Main gun, operating as a Secondary Gunner if the Tank Gunner isn't Present, however he can only operate the Main Gun and Heavy Coaxial Machine Gun. In the Drivers Station, the Driver has two screens, one for Information and the other a Map Screen' the M1A4 no longer has the "T" Bar Steering but has two Joysticks Controls(one on his Right, other on the Left) the right joystick is for Acceleration/Deceleration and the left joystick is for Turning/Steering, Both Computers Display data on the Hydrogen Hybrid Engine, if the Hydrogen Fuel Cells are nearing Empty or the Engine Compartment is in danger of significantly overheating, the Driver can flip a switch to cool down the engine compartment and also open the reserve Hydrogen Fuel Cells, the screens also display Electrical Power and output, The Driver can also send target data to his crew members in the fighting compartment if needed, on Select vehicles the 20mm REDBACK Point Defense Weapon is installed for Military operations in Urban Terrain. The SPECTRA Fragmentation Protection is part of the Abrams Modular Armor Package, it is a Ballistic and Fragmentation protection requirement set by MIL-51-4 and consist of 10 Layers, starting with Kevlar/Spectra, Carbon Fibre and Polymer, it is repeated every few inches, The Crew Compartment is Kevlar Lined and also has a Boron Carbide Liner to prevent fatal radiation from entering the Vehicle.
Since the Abrams was introduced it has seen action in every major conflict to date, and has seen success during every conflict, effectively engaging enemy threats before they could respond, while some Abrams have been lost in combat mainly due to Hostile threats, while a few have been lost during friendly fire incidents and some to accidents.
The future of the Abrams is quite certain, The Abrams in Tarakian Service is nearing in it's final generation and most likely it will be retired after final production of the M1A4 Ceases and replaced by a new tank, same goes with the Leopard 2 Series, it is also in it's final generation, It is also possible that in the near future that the Experimental M1A4-140 will take over the primary battle tank replacing the 120mm variants in service.
Army Brass have issued various MIL-DTL's to develop the successor to the M1 Series of Tanks, GDLS has accomplished this with the M5 Schwarzkopf Main Battle Tank. It is expected that all M1s through A3 will be put into storage while the M1A4 still serving until the M5 Schwarzkopf is at capacity to phase out the remaining M1A4s.
The XM1 Abrams is where it all started, it was Vastly different from it's production version, the XM1 Abrams used the Continental AVDS-1790-2C 12-Cylinder Air-Cooled Diesel Engine generating 750 Horsepower at 2,400rpm, the AVDS was borrowed over from the M60A3 Patton Tanks, and showed great performance but was prone to failure, and was limited to one type of fuel Diesel, General Dynamics began looking into a Multifuel Engine and came across the idea of using a Jet Turbine to power the Main Battle Tank, the result was the Honeywell/Lycoming ATG-1200B Multifuel Turbine Engine, being able to run fuels from Standard Unleaded Fuels, Kerosene, thick Bunker fuels or Jet Propellants, however the bunker Fuels required the entire engine to be refurbished due to it's thick and sticky nature, the
Primary fuel selected for the Engine was JP-8 (Jet Propellant-8) JP-8 is less flammable and burns great and provides hours of operation before needing to
be refueled, General Dynamics produced 17 XM1 Prototypes, all with different armament set ups, but most were armed with the M68, after trials the M68 105mm rifled main gun, it was deemed to be the perfect fit the XM1 Abrams and was soon being tested for effectiveness against Soviet Armor, the M68 fired the M883 Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot and was effective against Earlier Soviet Armor, but was proving to be ineffective against later Soviet Tanks. But still remained in Service on the XM1, the Armor on the XM1 was also ineffective against the increasing Soviet Threats.
The First Production model of the Abrams, the M1 was introduced in 80's, the main difference between the XM1 and the M1 was the Turret, the Turret went through a radical redesign and featured sloped Glacial Plates with the Main gun cradle offset just a little bit, this set up offered the M1 Excellent protection against Anti-Armor Weapons and somewhat against SABOT weapons, the M1 Abrams also mounted a improved version of the M68, the M68A1 had a increased barrel life and was 44 Calibers long and still had a rifled nature, Rheinmetall introduced a improved version, the M68A2 105mm Smoothbore Main gun, it was 52 Calibers in length and was installed on select units to test it's effectiveness, Data Gathered from this test would be used to develop the Improved Production M1. The M1 Abrams was way ahead of it's time in Tarakia, and presented itself as the MBT of the Future, it's true test would come 10 years later in Operation Desert Endeavor, While it used the Spaced Laminate, Aluminium 7017 High Hardness Steel and a Polymer/Carbon Fiber Filler, the M1 was still prone to hits in the Rear and Sides due to the armor not being as thick as the frontal plates were.
M1-IP(Improved Production) Abrams
The M1-IP was introduced as a upgrade and retrofit to the baseline M1 Abrams, the IP Model was an upgrade on the Suspension, Armor Package, Deletion of Sprocket Retainer Ring and adding a Rear Storage rack for Crew Amenities and supplies, the M1-IP was armed with the improved Rheinmetall M68A2 L/52 105mm Smoothbore Main gun, the Main Differences between the M68A1 and M68A2 Main gun was the Rifling, the M68A2 was a Smoothbore Main gun with a Chrome Lined Barrel for extended Life, it also featured the improved Honeywell ATG-1200C Multifuel Turbine Engine and a increased fuel capacity, The M1-IP was capable of 45 Miles Per Hour on road and 37 Miles Per Hour Off Road, Due to the Sand in Tarakia and it's tendency to rust and erode parts, the M1-IP's featured tropicalized Road Wheels, Engine Parts, Fuel Tanks, and other important parts prone to damage or rusting.
M1A1/HA(Heavy Armor) Abrams
In 1986 the M1A1 Abrams was introduced, it featured a completely redesigned Armor Package featuring DU Layers and other Classified Materials, it was also Tropicalized and therefore did not need to be sent back to the factory for Tropicalization, it was armed with the Lethal Rheinmetall M256 L/44 120mm Smoothbore capable of engaging a hostile tank from 2 Kilometers out and also featured 2 Plane Gyrostablization for shooting on the move and going over bumpy areas, General Dynamics also introduced the ATG-1500C Multifuel Turbine Engine, giving the M1A1 even more performance over it's earlier models, however due to the added weight from the DU Armor and M256, the Road speed was decreased down to 41.5 Miles Per Hour on Road and 32 Miles Per Hour off road. Tarakian Tank Crews belong to 1-77 Armor would get their first taste of Combat in the M1A1 Abrams, 1-77 Armor was responsible for nearly all the confirmed kills on Sal-Kari Tanks in Operation Desert Endeavor, the Abrams had proved it's combat worthy and was the most advanced tank in the Region, 3 M1A1 Abrams were lost during Operation Desert Endeavor, two Abrams were lost to Hostile Fire and the third Abrams was lost due to Friendly fire from a Marine Corps AH-1J Super Cobra, with it's remarkable performance and combat proven design, the M1A1 Abrams became the mainstay of the Tarakian Army.
In 1991-92 the M1A2 Abrams was introduced, Again it featured a completely new Redesigned Armor Package still containing the DU Layers and some newer classified Materials, The M1A2 was a major step for the Main Battle Tank' featuring a Commanders Independent Thermal Viewer, Land Navigation System and Improved Storage the M1A2 was a Advanced piece of technology, Primary Firepower came from the improved Rheinmetall M256A1
120mm L55 Smoothbore Main gun increasing the range of the M1A2 Abrams to 2.5 Kilometers, General Dynamics again selected the ATG-1500C Multifuel Turbine Engine to give the M1A2 power equivalent to the M1A1 Abrams, While the M1A2 was introduced, Tarakian Army M1A1 Abrams that had been put into storage were being refurbished and sent to the Marine Corps to bolster their Tank fleet and replace the aging 50+ Year old M60A3, General Dynamics then applied the Abrams Integrated Management System to Marine Corps M1A1/HC's bringing them up to par with the Army M1A2 Abrams.
In 2017, General Dynamics introduced the M1A3 Abrams Main Battle Tank, the M1A3 was ahead of it's time and featured a revised Armor Package of 4th Gen RHA, and the Rheinmetall M256A2 L/66 120mm Smoothbore Main gun, the L/66 120mm was long and deemed ineffective to be used, although it increased the range of the Abrams to 3.4 Kilometers, it was too long and proved hard to maneuver with in tight Spaces, 50 M1A3 Abrams with the L/L66 Smoothbore were produced and are only used during Training, Rheinmetall introduced the M256A2 L/55 120mm Smoothbore, a Drastic upgrade over the A2 L/66, increasing the Barrel life by 600 rounds and increasing the range to 3 Kilometers, the M1A3 Introduced the Advanced Lycoming ATG-1700C, Generating 1,700 Horsepower and a speed of 42 Miles Per Hour, while that is the governed speed, removing the Govern limit will increase the speed to 56 Miles Per Hour at the expense of more fuel burned and possible damage to the engine due to over heating. the M1A3 Would go onto serve for 21 years before being replaced by the Current production model, the M1A4 Abrams which is the most Advanced Abrams tank to date in the Tarakian Army Motor Pool.
Introduced in 2031, the M1A4 became the most advanced Abrams to date in service with the Tarakian Army, the Armor configuration was vastly different from the previous series of Abrams, using a 5th Gen RHA-SEDU sandwiched with a SEDTA and Spectre Ballistic Fragmentation Liner, with a thickness of 1900 Milimeters of Armor, it it is the most Advanced Armor configuration to date and is only seeing use on the M1A4 Abrams, the M1A4 also uses the Tank Urban Survival Kit III(TUSK III), the Kit equips the Abrams with Reactive Armor Tiles on the Side Skirts and sides of the Turret, Rear Protection Slate Armor Cage over Engine Exhaust, Armored Belly to protect against Improvised Explosive Devices, M153 CROWS(Crew Remote Operated Weapon System) II, Loaders Gunner Shield for M37/240, Loaders Night Vision sight for M37/240. General Dynamics introduced the Advanced Honeywell ATG-2000C Hydrogen Hybrid Multifuel Turbine Engine, The ATG-2000C is the first Hydrogen Turbine developed by Honeywell and produces 2,000 Horsepower and gives the M1A4 a top speed of 68 Miles Per Hour, although weighing considerably more than previous Abrams models, the A4 weighs 72.1 Tons but due to the Hydrogen Turbine it is not bogged down because of the Materials used in the Development of the Hydrogen Turbine, Because it's a Hybrid Turbine, JP-8 Can still be used but the Hydrogen Fuel Cells must be removed, or otherwise the JP-8 Fuel will damage the Fuel Cells and render them useless, the M1A4 mounts the Rheinmetall M256A3 L/55 120mm Smoothbore Main gun, the M256A3 is a considerable upgrade over the previous generations of the M256 Series, the A3 Model increases range to 3.6 Kilometers and barrel life by 750 Rounds. BAE Systems introduced, the SPECTRE System, A full Digital Upgrade to the System' the SPECTRE system included Enhanced Digital Gun Sights, Enhanced FLIR(Forward Looking Infrared), Brigade Combat Network System, Digital Gunner Station. The Digital Gunner Station was revolutionary, because it added the Fire Solution Computer' the FSC introduced the Abrams Advanced Fire Control Suite, the AFCS is able to feed the gunner 1,000 Solutions every few seconds for the Selected Munition, the Data is also in real time and therefore the Advanced Fire Control Suite must continue to feed Data to the gunner' the Advanced Fire Control Suite can also be operated in Passive mode where Data is manually selected for the munition and then passed onto the Commander for Approval. the SPECTRE System improved the Commanders Master "Blaster" Arm to override gunner control of the Main gun if hesitant to fire, This also allows the Commander to fully Traverse the Turret and Lay the Main gun, operating as a Secondary Gunner if the Tank Gunner isn't Present, however he can only operate the Main Gun and Heavy Coaxial Machine Gun. In the Drivers Station, the Driver has two screens, one for Information and the other a Map Screen' the M1A4 no longer has the "T" Bar Steering but has two Joysticks Controls(one on his Right, other on the Left) the right joystick is for Acceleration/Deceleration and the left joystick is for Turning/Steering, Both Computers Display data on the Hydrogen Hybrid Engine, if the Hydrogen Fuel Cells are nearing Empty or the Engine Compartment is in danger of significantly overheating, the Driver can flip a switch to cool down the engine compartment and also open the reserve Hydrogen Fuel Cells, the screens also display Electrical Power and output, The Driver can also send target data to his crew members in the fighting compartment if needed, on Select vehicles the 20mm REDBACK Point Defense Weapon is installed for Military operations in Urban Terrain. The SPECTRA Fragmentation Protection is part of the Abrams Modular Armor Package, it is a Ballistic and Fragmentation protection requirement set by MIL-51-4 and consist of the 10 Layers, starting with Kevlar/Spectra, Carbon Fibre and Polymer, it is repeated every few inches, The Crew Compartment is Kevlar Lined and also has a Boron Carbide Liner to prevent fatal radiation from entering the Vehicle.
140mm and XM91 Autoloader(C.1989)
At one point the Tarakian Army was looking into a alternative smoothbore Main Gun, one capable of more destructive power and a range of 10 Kilometers, the result was the XM291 Electro-Thermal Chemical smoothbore Main Gun coupled with the XM91 Autoloader, it was designed to be a direct drop in system, the XM291 was also
produced in the 120mm caliber as the XM91 was also compatible with the 120mm caliber, in order to make the 140mm ETC work in the Abrams and the Auto loader it required the bustle to be lengthened and the deletion of the Loader, this was uncommon in a Western Style Main Battle Tank, General Dynamics also developed a drop in turret system featuring the auto loading system with a lengthened bustle to accommodate the larger unitary 140mm rounds, The XM91 RALS (Robotic Arm Loading System) Auto loader worked by moving on a track, drawing the 140mm round from the 18 Round Carousel Drum and sliding over to the breach and ramming the round in. Unlike Soviet Armor and their Auto loaders using a Carousel under the turret itself, the Abrams system using an Auto loader drew rounds directly from behind where the Loader sits(if the Loader was still present) while using the 140mm Unitary Rounds, the Abrams could only carry 18 ready and 18 in Reserve(36 in Total) meaning it was limited in terms of prolonged Engagements. Because the 140mm is considerably thicker than the 120mm Main Gun tube, thus the deletion of the Coaxial Machine Gun is mandatory in order to mount the gun, work on a Coax mounted above the Main Gun was in the developmental stage as early as 1984, prospective prototypes of the Coaxial mounted machine gun above the main gun were tested, while the testing went positive, Though the Tarakian Army opted to shelf the program indefinitely, the Heavy Coax wouldn't come into play nearly 2 decades later. While the Program of the 140mm and Auto loader continued with great success in 1991, General Dynamics ran into a serious problem, due to the recoil force of the 140mm Smoothbore, the Stabilization could not stay on target and would cause the main gun to be "knocked" off target potentially putting the crew into danger, the Stabilization and Recoil system were radically redesigned to account for this
effect, and also ATK began work on a Unitary 140mm round that could be loaded by a human loader, these 140mm rounds used an experimental Gel propellant and also were the first 140mm projectiles to use a Combustible Cartridge Case, this was a big improvement as the whole round was sent out, and no base cap was thrown back into the crew compartment. The M889 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer used a Experimental Long Rod Tungsten Palladium Penetrator, With the end of the Cold War the ATAP (Advanced Tank Armament Program) was cancelled and additional funding went into the next generation of the Abrams Tanks.
120mm Compact Automatic Magazine
Starting in 2014, select M1A2s from 2-82 Armor were sent in for modification to remove their old Bustle Mounted Ready and Reserve Racks to the new Decatur Defense Systems 120mm Compact Automatic Magazine. The new 120mm Compact Automatic Magazine was designed to be fitted in the bustle of the M1 and still retain all the crew
survivability the original bustle offered, including the retainment of the upwards venting blow off panels. In order for installation it required the deletion of the old blast doors and replaced with a porthole that would open/close for ammunition extraction, this was further bolstered by a solid armor bulkhead between the crew and bustle. A unique feature of this system is the memory that remembers round location and type within the magazine and can easily be selected by the Gunner from his console, the Commander from his console or
the Loader using the touch screen pad to select the required munition. A single drawback of this system is the 34 rounds of ammunition carried as compared to the 44 rounds of the original bustle, this system however allowed for 15 shells per minute access rate, allowing the loader to load faster then with the old racks. This system was installed on M1A2 SEP V.2 Tanks and has been on every M1 model since then, some older M1A1/HAs through the AIM/TUSK/SA/CAM Upgrades were fitted with 120mm Compact Automatic Magazines. The memory system is one of the most unique parts of the 120 CAM Upgrade, allowing for the location of every round in the magazine whether it's a Sabot, MPAT, Canister or GLATGM.
The Camouflage of the Abrams Series has always been a critical part, especially when operating in certain theaters, The Paint used is Chemical Agent Resistant Coating or CARC, CARC is a MIL-STD requirement and is resistant to any CBRN Threat and is easily washed off, Abrams Tanks come from the factory painted in Summer Verdant, while replacement parts usually come in O.D. Green resulting in Mismatched parts, bringing in the name "Patchwork Abrams" due to the Mismatching of the two Colors, Additionally Each Abrams is painted in MERDC Grey Desert, the most common camouflage seen on the M1 series of Tanks. It is officially designated as Multipurpose Vehicle Camouflage Pattern (MVCP)
The Camouflages are as follows:
- Summer Verdant
- Show W/Trees Verdant
- Tropical Verdant
- Red Desert
- Winter Verdant
- Snow W/Open Verdant
- Grey Desert
- Winter Arctic
- Transitional Verdant (Mix of Grey Desert and a refined Tropical Verdant)
Additionally, M1's have been seen historically painted in the Dual Tex Camouflage and the MASSTER Camouflage.
While Concealment has never been a concern on the System, lately a Company had released a demonstrator of a Concealment system known as the BlackFox IR Concealment System. It is a add on system of Plates, bolted to the Armor and over every area that produces a heat signature. Due to a recent addition by Bad Wolf Corporation-Tarakia, the Newest prototype armor package allows for radio wave cancellation.
The Abrams uses the AN/VLQ-6 Missile Countermeasure System, while it can counter most Missiles and render them Inert, From M1A2 up it was equipped with the ASPRO-A Trophy Hemispheric Active Defense System to deter the threat of Rocket Propelled Grenades, the Trophy system works by launching a MEFP(Multiple Explosive Formed Penetrator) when the Rocket has breached the "Invisible" Perimeter and neutralizes the rocket before it becomes a threat, Also present on the System is the new "Trench Coat" a 360 Degree Radar that can detect and launch 17 projectiles to neutralize the threat of the RPG-29/30. Also as part of Active Defense, the Abrams uses a 18 Cell Flare Launcher mounted behind the Commanders Hatch, this 18 Cell box is small enough to be unnoticed but also small enough to not obstruct anything.
- Rolled Homogeneous Armor Steel Encased Depleted Uranium Mesh Plating
- Pampalon Special Armor
- Barca Special Armor
M1s primarily designed and developed to do dedicated tasks such as Recovery, Engineering and Bridge Laying.
M1 Heavy Armored Recovery Vehicle
The M1 Heavy Armored Recovery was designed to replace the M88 Armored Recovery Vehicles in the Tarakian Army, the HARV was more then capable of pulling an Abrams Tank where as the M88 was not. the HARV was able to keep up with maneuver elements and not drag behind thanks to the turbine engine.
M1 Grizzly Combat Engineering Vehicle
The Grizzly was primarily designed for the need of a Combat Engineering Vehicle that could keep up with maneuver elements during exercises or wartime, as there was no M60 derived Combat Engineering Vehicles with a boom and bucket, the M1 Grizzly had this. The Boom was extendable and manipulable and had a 180 degree spin radius, the boom when not in use sat on the right side of the casemate hull, Grizzly CEVs were lightly armed and at times only carried a M240D Medium Machine Gun and Grenade Dischargers.
M1A1 Panther II Mine Clearing Vehicle
Born out of requirement to replace the M60 Panther I, the Panther II was developed for the simple reason that is boosted the capability of maneuver elements while in field and allowed for quick clearing of mined roads or plowing through a mine field to allow for M1A1 Tanks to move on through behind it. The Panther II is truly modular vehicle, because of it's capability and status on the battlefield, it may become a target of attacks and this is where it could be operated unmanned from a set of controls on a Platoon Leaders M1 Tank. Panther IIs are lightly armed, typically sporting an M2HB Heavy Machine Gun and smoke dischargers. In the early 2020s they were outfitted with Anti-IED Equipment and Remote Weapon Stations.
M104 Wolverine Heavy Armored Vehicle Launch Bridge
The M104 is the most promising variant of the M1 Family of Dedicated Variants, designed to replace the older and obsolete M60A3 Armored Vehicle Launch Bridge, the M104 made use of the advantage that the M1A1 and A2 hulls offered and that was mobility. Being lightly armored the Wolverines are high priority targets of OpFor units and have seen relative losses. To avoid this, Wolverines are fitted with Abrams Reactive Armor Tiles-2 (ARAT-2) and carry little to no armament other then Crew Armament. Prototypes of the M104 Wolverine originally made use of the 60 ton weight class scissor bridge, production Wolverines were equipped with a new laying system for the MAN Leguan 70 ton weight class bridge, licensed built by General Dynamics Tactical Products.
M1A1 Assault Breacher Vehicle
The Assault Breacher Vehicle was a Marine Corps Project to develop a multi-purpose Engineering Vehicle that could destroy mine fields from stand off distance without putting the crew in danger, the Breacher is unique in that it's turret lacks the main gun and has modified Bradley Reactive Armor on the turret, the loaders hatch was deleted and the commanders hatch was moved to the center of the turret, the ammunition storage is replaced by the Mine Clearing Line Charge (MICLIC) and the Launchers to use them, additionally the Breachers are fitted with a Marking Device to let BLUFOR or WHITFOR know that the route is clear. A Track Width Mine Plow is fitted as standard, but dozer blades are also very common. While the Marine Corps designed and field it the most, the Army adopted the Breacher and modified it to A2 Standard for use during the Peacekeeping during YFOR (Yohaas Force) Breachers were also subject to target by RPGs and other munitions. In a sense, the Breacher can be seen as the Marine Corps version of the M1A1 Grizzly although without the excavation boom.
AIM (Abrams Integrated Management)
Abrams Integrated Management reconditions Abrams tanks to zero hour condition for export or refurbishment of parts.
TUSK (Tank Urban Survival Kit)
Tank Urban Survival Kit as it's name implies is a kit that adds Reactive Armor Tiles to both the sideskirts and the side of the turret, along with slat/cage protection over the engine exhaust, it also adds on the Heavy Coaxial Machine Gun over the main gun. Depending on the TUSK Version, a 15.5x106mm Heavy Machine Gun may be mounted in the RWS in place of the older M2HB/E2 HMG, later versions of TUSK have Slat Armor all around the Tank similar to the Guardians.
SEP (Systems Enhancement Package)
Systems Enhancement Package is a upgrade package that is primarily designed for Computers and other systems within the Tank, this also includes a new cooling unit to keep Multifunction Liquid Crystal Light Emitting Diode Displays (MFLCLED) from overheating and overclocking.
SA (Situational Awareness)
Situational Awareness as it implies is a package primarily designed to outfit non command tanks with Blue Force Tracker Equipment.
CAM (Compact Automatic Magazine)
A bustle upgrade that replaces the original Ready and Reserve Racks with a Compact Automatic Magazine, this is primarily designed for earlier M1 Tanks that still have their old Bustle Racks.
AMAP (Abrams Modular Armor Package)
AAAP (Abrams Advanced Armor Package)
ASAP (Abrams Special Armor Package)
The Abrams Special Armor Package is a Spanish Armor Package designed to easily be fitted to M1 Tanks during production or retrofitting, it is a composite blend.
AAP (Abrams Awareness Package)
FEP (Firepower Enhancement Package)
The Firepower Enhancement Package is primarily designed for the regunning of older M1 and M1-IP Tanks up to A1 or A2 standard with a 120mm Smoothbore, they are also fitted with 3rd Generation DU Armor.
BCP (Battle Command Package)
The Battle Command Package can bring any M1 Tank up to BCV Standard by adding radios, larger antennas and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below, V2 and V3 computers are also added as well as Blue Force Tracker.
UCP/PKO (Urban Combat Package/Peace Keeping Operation)
Differs from TUSK, currently working on write up.
From the XM1 up to the M1A4, the Abrams has gone through many Main Guns, some merely improvements, others entirely brand new platforms. The Primary Armament of the Abrams from the M1A1 to current models has been the Rheinmetall M256 Series, offering a kill ratio like none other, While the M256 Series may seem outdated even in it's 4th Generation, no Replacement has been selected or even considered because if it ain't broken, why replace it.
- Royal Ordinance L7 105mm Rifled Main Gun
XM1-105 Prototype Armament, developed into the M68
- Rheinmetall M68A1 L/44 105mm Rifled Main Gun
Borrowed over from the M60A3 Patton, the 105mm Main Gun at it's time was the most lethal on a Tarakian Tank, even being able to defeat Soviet Armor of the 50's and mid 60's
- Rheinmetall M68A2 L/52 105mm Smoothbore Main Gun
A entirely new 105mm Main Gun, using a smoothbore instead of rifling, the M68A2 became the pinnacle in Tank gun technology, achieving an even more lethal hit/kill on Soviet Armor, it was used until replaced by the M256.
- Rheinmetall M256 L/44 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
Adopted as the new Main Armament of the M1A1 Abrams, due to the increasing threat of Soviet Armor Technology, Sending a Sabot out at 2 Kilometers and achieving a kill was something not seen on the previous generation of MBT's
- Rheinmetall M256E1 L/55 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
Part of the Advanced Tank Cannon Program, 5 barrels were produced to test integration in the M1A2 platform. While recoil and stability was a problem this was corrected and it soon became the M256A1.
- Rheinmetall M256A1 L/55 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
A lengthened 120mm borrowed over from the Leopard 2A6, the L/55 Smoothbore increased the life of the Barrel and also the effective combat range.
- Rheinmetall M256A2 L/55/66 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
Improved version of the M256A1, the M256A2 Smoothbore was a step in a direction not previously seen, the M256A2 was a Product Improvement over the M256A1, it increased the barrel life and allowed for more firing in between barrel changes.
- Rheinmetall M256A3 L/55 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
A Complete Redesign of the M256A2, the M256A3 is the most Advanced Main Gun on the Abrams Platform, arming the M1A4. Barrel Life was decreased a little due to the more powerful munitions being fired on the A4 Platform.
- Rheinmetall M256A3LW L/55 120mm Smoothbore Main Gun
A Lightweight M256A3, it was designed as part of the LWTAP (Lightweight Tank Armament Program) as part of the M1A4 Product Improvement Package.
- BAE Systems XM360 120mm Lightweight Smoothbore Main Gun
An Experimental Lightweight Smoothbore designed by BAE Systems to replace the M256 Series, the BAE Systems XM360 is vastly different in appearance and length.
- Rheinmetall XM451 L/50 140mm ETC Smoothbore Main Gun
- Rheinmetall XM291 L/50 120/140mm Smoothbore Main Gun
- FNH M240C Coax
Primary Coax Arming the M1 Series, using a Linkless Feed with a maximum effective range of 1100 meters
- FNH M240D
Loaders Machine Gun, replaced the M60 on the M1 Abrams.
- General Dynamics M37
Replacing the Loaders Machine Gun, the M37 is a modernized 7.62mm Version of the .30cal M1919 Machine Gun.
- General Dynamics M245C Coax
.338 Norma Magnum Coaxial Machine Gun that has replaced the FN M240C in SEP V3 and V4 Abrams Tanks, maximum effective range of 1750 meters.
- General Dynamics M245D
.338 Norma Magnum Loaders Machine Gun replacing the M37 and M240D Machine Guns on the Loaders station, the M245D is part of the SEP V3 and V4 and as part of TUSK II/III for older M1 Tanks.
- General Dynamics M312
Briefly used, replaced the M2HB until the M2HB Replaced it only after a Year.
- FNH M2HB Heavy Machine Gun
Standard 12.7mm Anti-Infantry/Aircraft Machine Gun on the Abrams, Mounted on the M151E2 CROWS II.
- FNH M2E2 Heavy Coax
Part of the T.U.S.K Program, the M2E2 Heavy Coax sits above the Main Gun and controlled by the Gunner. or Commander with the Spectre System.
- Rheinmetall RMG.50
Part of the Espanian Army Upgrade known as Catalina, the RMG.50 is housed in a FLW 200 stabilized Remote Weapons Station and sits mounted on the Dog House.
- General Dynamics M3HB Heavy Machine Gun
An enlarged M2HB, the M3 is a 15.5x106mm Heavy Machine Gun that is pushing the border between Autocannon and HMG, the M3HB is part of the SEP V3 and SEP V4 upgrades to the M1A3 and M1A4.
- General Electric M134 Vulcan Minigun
Briefly Used, Mainly on Abrams Command Variant, still seen but not as much.
- General Electric M/GAU-19B Heavy Minigun
Currently used on the M1A4 as the Commanders Heavy Minigun, the GAU-19B is not used with the CROWS II due to it's size, if the CROWS is being used the M2HB is selected.
- Sig Sauer M2021 Scorpion .45 Tactical
- Desert Tactical Arms MDR-C 6.8x43mm SPC II Bullpup Rifle
- Gerber LMF III ACTF (Armor Crewmen Tactical Knife)
- AT-8CS (4 Carried in Bustle Rack)
- M72A5 LAW (4 Carried in Bustle Rack)
If bailout is required due to damaged vehicle or crew is in threat of getting overran in a urban environment, Each Crew member (As of 2021) carries a Scorpion, MDR-C 6.8 and Combat Knife to protect themselves.
MIL-STD (Military Standard)- 4224 Ammunition is the classification of all Ammunition that is qualified, cataloged and approved for use on the M1 Abrams Family of Tanks, likewise New German and Espanan Munitions are backwards compatible with Tarakian Tanks and vice versa, PAMA has adopted 4224 as Standardization- 3061 Ammunition.
In order to defeat hostile armor and counter specific threats, a wide array of Ammunition was developed for the Abrams, from regular Sabots to prototype rounds, Each 120x570mm round features a single piece nitrocellulose and cellulose fiber Combustible Cartridge Case (CCC), lightweight graphite fiber/polymer matrix composite case base, 24mm diameter heat tempered Tungsten-Cobalt Heavy Alloy (WHA) Long Rod Penetrator. HEAT Rounds use the same CCC but do not contain the Long Rods, HEAT Rounds such as MPAT have a discarding Sabot around a sub caliber warhead, Beehive Canisters are also CCC.
- M883 Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot-Tracer
- M900 Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Improved)
- M456A2 High Explosive Anti-Tank
- M1040 "Beehive" Anti-Personal Canister
- M829 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (DU Penetrator)
- M829A1 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Known as Silver Bullet)
- M829A2 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Tungsten Penetrator)
- M829A3 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Tungsten Penetrator)
- M829A4 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Tungsten Penetrator)
- M829A5 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer (Tungsten Penetrator)
- M830 High Explosive Anti-Tank
- M830A1 High Explosive Anti-Tank Multipurpose-Tracer
- M908 High Explosive Obstacle Reducing Tracer/Multipurpose Anti-Tank Obstacle Reducing-Tracer
- M908A1 High Explosive Obstacle Reducing Tracer/Multipurpose Anti-Tank Obstacle Reducing-Tracer
- M1028 "Beehive" Anti-Personal Canister
- M1028E1 "HornetHive" Anti-Personal Canister
- M934 Smart, Target Activated, Fire and Forget
- M934A1 STAFF II
- M934A2 STAFF III
- M999 (DM11) High Explosive-Fragmentation
- M999A1 High Explosive-Fragmentation
- M1029 Advanced Multipurpose
- XM1007 TERM PrimeX
- XM1009 XROD-KE
- XM1009 XROD-CE
- XM1012 Sense/Search and Destroy Armor Airburst
- XM1013 High Explosive Thermobaric Warhead
- XM1015 Virtual Cathode Oscillator
- M889 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer
- M889A1 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer
- M890 High Explosive Anti-Tank
35mm (for Abrams Air Defense System)
- M330 High Explosive Incendiary-Tracer
- M330A1 High Explosive Incendiary
- M543 Semi-Armor Piercing High Explosive Incendiary-Tracer
- M558 Frangible Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot
- M1043 AHEAD Anti-Missile Round
- M1018 Cased Telescopic Frangible
Weights of M829 and M830
- M829 41.1 Pounds (18.6 kg)
- M829A1 46 Pounds (20.9 kg)
- M829A2 46 Pounds (20.9 kg)
- M829A3 49 Pounds (22.3 Kg)
- M829A4 Super Sabot 49 Pounds (22.3 kg)
- M829A5 Super Sabot 51 Pounds (23.13 kg)
- M830A1 HE-MPAT 49 Pounds (22.3 kg)
Training Penetrators and HEAT rounds are also designed to familiarize Abrams Tank Crews.
120mm Training Rounds
- M895 Target Practice Cone Stabilized Discarding Sabot Kinetic Energy Trainer
- M83A1 High Explosive Anti-Tank Trainer
- M1002 Multi-Purpose Anti-Tank Target Practice
The Abrams is powered by the Honeywell/Lycoming AGT Series of Turbines, these Turbines offer outstanding tactical mobility in the field and also give the Abrams series varying speeds, while most Governed speeds are 41.5 Miles Per Hours, removing the Govern will increase the speeds greatly at the expense of more burned fuel and possible engine damage, therefore the recommended ungoverned speed is 50 Miles Per hour. As part of the Mobility each Abrams is equipped with an Under Armor Auxiliary Power Unit.
The Abrams has always been criticized for it's strategic mobility, because of it's weight. While the Abrams can be moved by a C-5 Galaxy, the C-5 can only move one Abrams(during peacetime) and two(during wartime), also the C-17B Globemaster III can move one Abrams at a time and strategic mobility is severally cut. Because of this the Tarakian Army makes uses of alternative Methods, depending on severity of the current conflict most Abrams are transported by the M1070 Heavy Equipment Transport using the M1000 Trailer, Armored Military Trains or transported by Tarakian Navy Transport Ships.
- Four to Six Abrams Tanks
- Eight Abrams Tanks (Four if HHQ Company)
- Sixteen Abrams Tanks
- Sixty Four Abrams Tanks
Variants and Upgrades
- XM1-FSED: Experimental Model. Various pilot vehicles were developed, with different armament and propulsion set ups, 17 were produced.
- XM1 (Prototype 1): XM1 armed with the M68 105mm Maingun and the AVCR 1360-2 Diesel Engine.
- XM1 (Prototype 7): XM1 armed with the MBT-70 XM-150 152mm Gun/Launcher, redesigned ammunition storage for the 152mm Shillelagh Missile and 152mm conventional ammunition, H.S.820 20mm Autocannon in place of M2 on the Commanders Station and Continental AVDS-1790-12C Diesel Engine.
- XM1 (Prototype 13): XM1 armed with the M68 105mm Maingun and the Honeywell/Lycoming ATG-1200 Multifuel Turbine Engine.
- XM1 (Prototype 17): XM1 armed with the XM35 105mm Maingun in place of the M68A1, the maingun would then be used as part of the XM8 AGS Program (However, the program itself was started in the 90's), again Prototype 17 was given the ATG-1200 Multifuel Turbine and was the last prototype and would become the XM1, expect with the M68.
- XM104 Wolverine HAVLB: Prototype Heavy Armored Bridge Layer based on the M1 Chassis, shares 90% commonality with the XM1, uses scissor type MLC-60 Bridge.
- XM104 Wolverine HAVLB (Prototype 2): Heavy Armored Bridge Layer with New German Leguan MLC-60 Bridge.
- M1: First Production Model. Redesigned Turret and New Armor Package, Armed with M68 105mm.
- M1-IP: Improved Production Model. M68A1 105mm Smoothbore, Turret Bustle Rack added, Sprocket Retainer Ring Deleted, Honeywell/Lycoming ATG-1500C Multifuel Turbine and New Armor Package.
- M1 HARV: Heavy Armored Recovery Vehicle. Based on the M1 Abrams Chassis, equipped with Crane and tow winch.
- M104 Wolverine HAVLB: Production Wolverine using the New German Leguan MLC-60 Bridge.
- M1 HAA: Heavy Armored Artillery. A prototype M1 that had a drastically redesigned hull with a front mounted Detroit Diesel 8V71T 8-Cylinder 540 horsepower turbocharged engine. It was armed with a M201A2 203mm Howitzer. Cancelled
- M1 HAA (Version 1): Heavy Armored Artillery. Revived in the mid 80's, Version 1 was equipped with a Rheinmetall improved M109 turret with a Rheinmetall developed 155mm howitzer, the turret featured a Rheinmetall autoloader that could fire 3 rounds in 10 seconds and could sustain 7 rounds per minute. Turret crew comprised of 3 men, but could be operated by 2. The Rheinmetall Howitzer was an improved version of the M284, specially developed for the M1 HAA that was 50 calibers long.
- M1 SRV: Surrogate Research Vehicle. Turretless M1 prototype designed to test All Crew In Hull. Hull is redesigned around the crew to provide more protection.
- M1 TTB: Tank Test Bed. Prototype M1 with unmanned turret with modified XM256 120mm and coaxial machine gun. Modified ammunition handling system for autoloading, two piece 120mm ammunition. All Crew In Hull.
- M1E1: Upgunned Prototype. M1-IP's refitted with the Rheinmetall M256 120mm Smoothbore Maingun, new bustle rack, mount for the CITV, redesigned blow off panels for the 120mm ammunition and new DU Armor.
- M1A1/HA: Second Production Model. New DU Armor Package, Retrofitted with M256 120mm Smoothbore, Pressurized NBC System.
- M1A1/HC: Marine Corps Model. Basic Marine Corps Model with DU Layers in Armor, Snorkel for amphibious operations.
- M1A1/HD: Marine Corps Model fitted with Battle Management System
- M1A1/HD (Variant 1): Marine Corps M1s fitted with Anti-IED Equipment
- M1A1-FEP: Further Upgrades of Marine Corps M1A1.
- M1A1-D: Battle Management Upgrade. Brings M1A1/HA/HC up to Digital Standard with the Battle Management System.
- M1A1-BCV: Battle Command Version. M1's equipped with V2 and V3 Computers, SINGCARS SPI/ING and SDR Radios, and a safe communications telephone MSRT.
- M1A1-ODS: Modified for Deserts. M1A1s that received special modifications for use outside of the Deserts of Tarakia.
- M1A1-AIM V.1: Marine Corps Upgrade. Brings Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams up to M1A2 Standard, Fitted with FLIR and C.I.T.V.
- M1A1-AIM V.2: Marine Corps Upgrade. Upgrades similar to V.1 Tanks, new 3rd Generation Depleted Uranium Armor and Honeywell/Lycoming ATG-1700C Turbine.
- M1A1-SA(Situational Awareness): M1A1's fitted with C.I.T.V. Primarily requested by the Democratic Republic Marine Corps.
- M1A1-AGDS: Air-Ground Defense System. M1A1's built with an entirely new turret mounting twin 35mm Bushmaster III Autocannons and 6 pak ADATS Missiles, with retractable sensors and other systems, can be used in the direct fire role.
- M1A1-UCV: Urban Combat Vehicle. Similar to M1A1 TUSK, however the main difference is the M137A1 165mm Demolition Gun in place of the standard 120mm smoothbore. It was developed to replace the M728 CEV derived from the M60.
- M1A1-HAA: Heavy Armored Artillery. M1A1's built with the Rheinmetall Maxi-PIP M109 Turret that can be operated by 3 men, but can be operated with 2 just fine. Maxi-PIP Turret has a Rheinmetall Autoloader and 47 caliber long 155mm Howitzer developed by RUAG and produced under license by Rheinmetall. It was the only variant of the M1 to use the LV-100 Turbine, it was known as the M1A1 Slammer by Crews.
- M1A1 Grizzly: Combat Engineering Vehicle. Based on the M1A1 Chassis, equipped with Dozer Blade and Excavation boom for engineering and/or other task.
- M1A1 Panther I/II: Mine Clearing Vehicle. Unmanned M1A1 Chassis used to clear mines, uses Unmanned technology' Controlled either by a Tank Commander or Platoon Tank Commander who is behind the Panther on his Tank.
- M1A1 Breacher: Assault Breacher Vehicle. Based on the M1A1 Chassis, Designed by the Marine Corps, features two line charge launchers and one large dozer blade with Clamps.
- M104A1 Wolverine: Converted from older M1A1 hulls. Uses improved MAN Leguan II MLC-70 Bridge.
- M1A1M: Generic Export Designation. M1s designed for export receive the generic M designation, unless it is specially developed for a certain country.
- M1A1-SK: Sal-Kari Model. M1A1 ordered by the reformed Sal-Kari Army, downgraded without DU Armor, instead uses originally armor scheme of the M1.
- M1A1-VM: M1A1s Vismodded to look like OpFor vehicles, primarily operated by TRADOC at the National Training Center in Southern Tarakia.
- M1A2: Third Production Model. Land Navigation System, New C.I.T.V and Armor Package.
- M1A2(-): Initial Production Variant. Initial Production of the M1A2, lacks CITV and some of the other systems of the late production M1A2s.
- M1A2-BCV: Command Model. (Battle Command Variant) Equipped with Improved Communication Equipment and redesigned Communication Systems, Same as the Basic M1A2 Abrams but with Command Suite.
- M1A2E-BCV: Espanian Command Model. Espanian M1's were locally retrofitted with Espanian Communications Equipment and other locally built equipment, They also had two MG3's in place of the M2A2 .50cal on the Commanders Station and the M240D on the Loaders Station. They also received a Pampalon (Later, domestically built variants had both Pampalon and Barca Special Armors) Special Armor Package that was thicker on the turret and glacis giving them more protection then a production M1A2. They were also refitted with the locally built Cazador Fire Control System, another system installed was the Rodela Active Protection System.
- M1A2EC: Domestic Espanian Model. Known as Catalina, because of the upgrades they performed on the M1A2E-BCV, the Catalina like it's counterpart had more protection then a production M1A2. See above section, Project Catalina for a more descriptive post in the section Design
- M1A2-SEP (Diesel): Prototype with GD-883 (MTU), 1500 Horsepower diesel engine, Renk HSWL-295TM Transmission and 3rd Generation DU Armor
- M1A2-SEP (Allison Diesel): Prototype with the Allison 12V883 Multifuel Diesel Engine and new Diehl 570P3 Track. Allison also introduced a new transmission based on that of the Renk-295TM.
- M1A2-SEP: Army Upgrade. Improved Road Speed, Increased Combat Weight, Improved DU Armor protection utilizing Tungsten and Graphite.
- M1A2-SEP V.2: Second SEP Upgrade.
- M1A2-AGDS: Air Defense System. Second Generation AGDS, 6 pak ADATS replaced by new long range domestically built successor missile of the Stinger, known as the Black Widow, built on A2 SEP Hulls. New AN/MPQ-68 Skadi Radar installed in place of the older AN/MPQ-67 Sky Rider Radar, can be used in conjunction with the Artemis II Radar to increase tracking range.
- M104A2 Wolverine: Utilizing the M1A2 SEP Hull, the M104A2 retains a 80-90% commonality with the M1A2, equipped with a MAN Leguan II MLC-70 Bridge.
- M1A3: Fourth Production Model. New ATG-1700C Turbine, Redesigned 4th Gen DU Armor Package.
- M1A3-BCV: Command Model. M1A3 with an entirely new command suite.
- M1A3-SEP V.3: Systems Enhancement Package Version 3. SEP V.3, specifically developed for the M1A3 features a host of software upgrades for core systems, dual A/C for both computers and crew compartment (hatches must be closed) installation of M245C Coaxial Machine gun, replacement of Loaders M37 for M245D Medium Machine Gun. Replacement of M2HB for M3HB 15.5x106mm Heavy Machine Gun in Remote Weapons Station and retainment of M2E2 Heavy Coaxial Machine Gun.
- M1A3G: New German Army Model. MTU-883 KA-501 Diesel Engine producing 1630 horsepower, redesigned engine deck and exhaust system, commonality with MIL-STD 4224 Ammunition and New German Ammunition, same DU armor as standard M1A3. Planned production to be built.
- M1A3G1: New German Army Model. Designated Panther by KMW, it is a licensed produced version of the M1A3 with all German electronics, weapons, engine and transmission.
- M1A4: Fifth Production Model. New ATG-2000C Hydrogen Hybrid Turbine, New 5th Generation RHA-SEDU/SEDTA/SFP, Tank Urban Survival Kit III, Abrams Integrated Management, System Enhancement Package, Spectre System.
- M1A4-SEP V.4: Systems Enhancement Package Version 4. Very similar to SEP Version 3 for the M1A3, V.4 adds in the option for a bustle rack mounted heating unit to keep crew warm in cold weather (This is also present on earlier Abrams tanks). They are also equipped with the M245C Coaxial Machine Gun, M245D Loaders Medium Machine Gun and the M3HB 15.5x106mm Heavy Machine Gun in the Remote Weapons Station.
- M1A4-BCV: Command Model. Equipped with the Abrams Awareness Package, carrying two RQ-13 Switchblade Hunter/Killer UAV's and One RQ-11 Raven Portable UAV in the Bustle Rack, Same as the Standard M1A4.
- M1A4-R: Revised Model. Incorporating the BAE Systems XM360 Lightweight 120mm Smoothbore and Honeywell LV-100-3D Hydrogen Turbine.
- M1A4-TTB: Tank Test Bed for New Armor Package. M1A4 designed to test a new Armor package.
- M1A4-140: 140mm Maingun protoype. A Prototype Abrams mounting the Experimental XM451 140mm Main Gun.
- M1A4-PIP: Product Improvement Package. Basic M1A4 with emphasis on reducing weight between 58 and 60 tons, using either State-of-The-Art Fiber Optic Cables or Bio-circuitry to also reduce weight, Replace current M256A3 with either M256A3LW or XM360, Introduce Improved Suspension, Introduce new lightweight ATG-2000C Hydrogen Turbine with IUAAPU(Improved Under Armor Auxiliary Power Unit).
- M1A1-140: Prototype Abrams with 140mm. Prototype M1A1 Abrams with Modified turret, Autoloader and 140mm ETC smoothbore, Modified M1A1 Chassis and suspension to accommodate for increased weight, Never entered production.
- XM1A1-AADS: Prototype Abrams Air Defense System. Modified Turret on a M1A1 Chassis with Twin Oerlikon GDF-007 KDA Autocannons, six cell stinger missile system able to retract into turret, Sky Rider X-band Radar and Improved Suspension to cope with additional weight added by specific electronics.
- M1A1-CEV: Combat Engineer Vehicle. Designed to replace the M60A1 derived M728, eventually cancelled and led to the development of the M1A1 Grizzly
Specifications on Variants
[Commonwealth of Australia] - [Australian Army] 100 M1A1 Abrams Tanks operated by the Australian Army, they're plans to upgrade them to M1A2 SEP Standard.
Democratic Orichy of Greater Espana - Espanian Army 320 M1A2-BCVs were sold to the Spanish Army to supplement for Leopard 2E Command Versions, 50 were delivered in 2007, followed by 50 for 6 years, with 20 delivered on the 7th year, they were redesignated M1A2E-BCV.
Kingdom of Sal-Kar - Sal-Kari Army 70 M1A1SK (Downgraded without D.U. Layers in Armor) were delivered to the new Sal-Kari Army in 2015.
Federal Republic of New Germany - New German Heer 500 Ex-D.R. Army M1A3s have been acquired by the New German Heer, with associated support vehicles. They have been designated as M1A3G with domestic upgrades known as M1A3G1 Panther.
- D.R. Army
- 3,610 M1A1s and variants
- 1,256 M1A2s and variants
- 5,554 M1A3s and variants
- 2,305 M1A4s and variants
- D.R. Marine Corps
- 1,250 M1A1s and variants
- 450 M1A2s and variants (Some upgraded M1A1s)
[Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy of New Zealand] - [New Zealand Army] 35 M1A1 Abrams operated by the New Zealand, they're plans to also bring them up to M1A2 SEP Standard.
Republic of Cascadia - Cascadian Army 680 new build M1A3s have been offered to the Cascadian Army to replace their older Tanks of which were local manufacture. 10 were acquired for testing and evaluation in 2036, after extensive trialing at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, the Cascadian Army requested that the turbines be swapped out for a diesel.
Chilean City-States - [Various Armies] An unknown number of Ex-D.R. Army M1A3s may be offered to the various armies of the Chilean City-States.
Argentine Nation-States - [Various Armies] An unknown amount of Ex-D.R. Marine Corps M1A1 Hybrids have been offered to the various Armies of the Argentine Nation States, however no offer has fell through.
Republic of Cascadia - Cascadian Marine Corps A number of second hand M1A1s were offered to the Cascadian Marine Corps at a reduced price by a PAMA member, the Commandant of the Cascadian Marine Corps choose instead to pursue the M60A3-120 Scorpion Main Battle Tank or the M60A4 in 2013
Federal Republic of New Austria - New Austrian Heer 88 Ex-D.R. Army M1A1s were offered to the New Austrian Heer in 1998, they however opted for the Leopard 2A4/A5
[The Socialist Republic of Caye] - [Cayen Defense Force] A PAMA observer member, they were offered 49 Ex-D.R. Marine Corps (Mix with D.R. Airforce Armored Security) M1A1s with DU Layers removed and replaced with the XM1 Armor Scheme, no deal fell through and Caye instead pursued a modernization for their T-72s known as "Tiger" They also bought 125 second hand T-80BV tanks.
[Republic of Cassvile] - [Cassville Defense Force]] The Republic of Cassville was offered a unknown number of Ex D.R. Army M1-IP Tanks for use by the CDF, however they opted to upgrade their Leopard 1A5s to Leopard 1A6 Standard mounting a 120mm L/44 Maingun in 1987.
[The Orichy Republic of Eulana] - [Eulana Island Defense Force] A Island republic of the Greater Espanians, 35 Ex-D.R. Army M1-IP Tanks were offered for use by the EIDF in 1989. They choose to acquire the M60A3 at a cheaper price. Again in 2015, 50 M1A2s were offered for use by the EIDF, they instead went with the T-90MS.
[Kingdom of Estreka]- [Estrekan Army] An unknown number of older M1s were offered to the former PAMA member in the 90's. However, not satisfied by the M1, nor the Leopard that New Germany had offered, Estreka went for the T-90S with an initial order of 175 Tanks. In 2005, they ordered 55 T-90SK Command Tanks. In 2017, they ordered 127 T-90SM/MS Tanks.
Known Abrams Tanks
- Slammer, A-21
- Crusher, C-22
- Clubber, D-4
- Cash Money, D-17
- Prime Evil, E-26
- Grey Wolf, E-52
- Balls of Steel, Z-63
- Private Pyle, C-11
- Get Some!, E-21
- Wiley Coyote, A-30
- Road Runner, A-31
- Prime Evil II, B-15
- Dat Firepower, C-24
- Armageddon, B-28
- Absolute Death, F-55
- No Pain No Gain, A-1
- Fire on High, E-22
- Apocalypse Now, A-11
- Hustle Man, A-17